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Citing Guide for Business (APA 7th ed.)

The research guide is a concise resource to help you implement APA Style 7th ed. guidelines. It covers formatting in-text citations and reference lists, providing clear examples for both.


You can choose between using a narrative or a parenthetical in-text citation style when you paraphrase a source in your paper.

Narrative citation of a paraphrased source

According to Smith (2021), regular exercise significantly improves mental health and overall well-being.

Parenthetical citation of a paraphrased source:

Regular exercise significantly improves mental health and overall well-being (Smith, 2021).

Note: It is not required to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation when you are paraphrasing.

Long Paraphrases

If you have a long paraphrase, cite the work being paraphrased on first mention. Once the work has been cited, it is not necessary to repeat the citation if the same work continues to be paraphrased:

Velez et al. (2018) found that for women of color, sexism and racism in the workplace were associated with poor work and mental health outcomes, including job-related burnout, turnover intentions, and psychological distress. However, self-esteem, person–organization fit, and perceived organizational support mediated these effects. Additionally, stronger womanist attitudes—which acknowledge the unique challenges faced by women of color in a sexist and racist society—weakened the association of workplace discrimination with psychological distress. These findings underscore the importance of considering multiple forms of workplace discrimination in clinical practice and research with women of color, along with efforts to challenge and reduce such discrimination.

Note: If the paraphrase continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation.

Paraphrasing Multiple Sources in One Sentence

When paraphrasing multiple sources in one sentence, include in-text citations for each source. The citations should be placed in parentheses, separated by a semicolon, and ordered alphabetically by the authors' last names:

  • (Author A, Publication year A; Author B, Publication year B)

Suppose you want to include paraphrased information from two sources, one by John Smith published in 2021 and another by Jane Brown published in 2020. The in-text citation would be formatted as follows:

Regular exercise has been shown to improve mental health (Brown, 2020; Smith, 2021)

In this example, the ideas from both sources are combined into a single sentence, and the in-text citations for each source are included in parentheses, separated by a semicolon. Note that the sources are listed alphabetically by the authors' last names.

Here is a more complex example of paraphrasing multiple sources in one sentence:

Play therapists can experience many symptoms of impaired wellness, including emotional exhaustion or reduced ability to empathize with others (Elwood et al., 2011; Figley, 2002), disruption in personal relationships (Elwood et al., 2011; Robinson-Keilig, 2014), decreased satisfaction with work (Elwood et al., 2011), avoidance of particular situations (Figley, 2002; O’Halloran & Linton, 2000), and feelings or thoughts of helplessness (Elwood et al., 2011; Figley, 2002; O’Halloran & Linton, 2000).

In this example, the in-text citation includes multiple sources to support distinct aspects of the statement. The parenthetical citations are placed next to the specific aspect of the sentence they support, separated by semicolons.

Want more information? Visit APA's webpages on paraphrasing and quotations.