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Collection Development and Management Manual CSULB

Policy and procedures on collection development and management at CSULB

Books and Media

  • Budget Allocation Formula:  The University provides state- and lottery-based funds to the Library for the acquisition of Library materials.  This materials budget is allocated by formula to each discipline (department, program, and/or college) for the purchase of books and media, including Reserve materials. Each subject specialist Library Faculty member then decides how to use the allocated amount to support acquisitions. The formula is based upon:

    • The previous calendar year's circulation by LC class based on HEGIS. (The term “Hegis” originally came from the U.S. Department of Education, and stands for Higher Education General Information Survey.) [See X drive > Library Faculty Committees > CDMC > CDMC Documents > LC Hegis Files];

    • The FTES course enrollment by discipline and by level (undergraduate/graduate); and 

    • The average academic book cost by LC class based on an annual report from the Yankee Book Peddler (YBP) or comparable data.

  • Budget Reports: Subject specialists check regular reports [See X drive > Library Faculty Committees > CDMC > Accounting Reports] on encumbrances and expenditures. In addition, subject specialists may check expenditures through the Library’s acquisitions system. NOTE: It is important to note that encumbrances, especially for book purchases, lag the accounting reports by up to a week. It is also important to note that taxes and fees for processing, shipping and making print books shelf ready need to be added to list price. These fees do not show up in encumbrances. They are not added until the invoice is received and a purchase moves from Encumbrance to Expenditure. These fees can range from about 4% for cloth books to 35% for paperback books. See Appendix I.


  • The current academic year’s serials budget is based on the previous year’s expenditure for serials and may include adjustments based on budget, inflation, and usage considerations, although an allocation approach, similar to monographs, is under consideration.

Interdisciplinary Electronic Products

  • Hegis 0016d is a fund established to support annual subscriptions and/or access fees for multidisciplinary subscription databases.

  • The fund is the responsibility of the Collection Development Officer. 

Copyright and Interlibrary Loan (ILL) Fund

  • Hegis 0008 tracks how much the library spends on payments to the Copyright Clearance Center for journal articles chapters that we borrow from other libraries. NOTE: This does not show up in weekly accounting reports.

  • Copyright expenditures are used to help determine when the library should subscribe to journals (and sometimes purchase books) where the copyright costs meet or exceed the subscription cost.

  • Copyright invoices are paid annually, so the accounting reports do not reflect current ILL usage.

  • Quarterly BeachReach (ILL) usage reports can be found X-Drive > BeachReach 

Lost Book Fund

  • The lost book replacement fund comprises monies paid by patrons for lost books and other allocated funds. It is collected by the Cashier’s Office on behalf of the Library.

  • The funds are reflected in Hegis 0012d on the accounting reports, and are appropriated at various times of the year. For details on how these funds are spent, see Appendix B: Replacement of Missing Items

Non-State Funds 

  • Non-State of California funds may be made available for the acquisition of Library materials.
  • These funds come from a variety of non-state sources, such as the Forty-Niner Shops, grants, named endowments, the Alumni Association, the CSULB 49er Foundation, etc. 

  • The money in these funds resides in accounts managed by the CSULB 49er Foundation and is disbursed at the direction of the Dean, in accordance with the wishes of the donors.

  • These funds have their own Hegis fund numbers for accounting purposes.

Collection Development Calendar Cycle 

A fiscal-year calendar has been established that provides for deadlines and benchmarks for various aspects of the collection development and management process. See X Drive > Library Faculty Committees > CDMC > Collection Development Calendar.

Library Faculty members are the primary selectors of materials to be acquired. Others, at the Dean’s direction, also may have selection responsibilities for particular collections in the Library (See Participants in the Library Collection Development Process, Responsibilities, Collection Development & Management). A list of Library Faculty member and staff selectors is found at X drive > Library Faculty Committees > CDMC > CDMC Documents > Librarian Assignment Sheets

Purchase of books, media, music

  • Selectors choose titles, number of copies, and whether a book / media should be ordered as a physical or an electronic copy;
  • Physical books are generally chosen from a purchasing vendor specified by the Library Administration (e.g. YBP GOBI), where the selector can put the books in a cart and approve the purchase. (Remember that the list price for print books do not include the added fees for taxes, shipping and shelf-ready processing. See Budget tab and Appendix I for more detail.)
  • Materials not available from the vendor (e.g. videos), or those needed on a Rush basis, can be requested directly by emailing the Director of Technical Services if they are not a subscription;
  • Technical Services staff [see CDMC manual, Participants, technical services] will review and place the actual order, or advise selector if there is a duplicate if there are questions/issues; and
  • Purchases are charged to the “d” version of the appropriate discipline Hegis fund, unless the Collection Development Officer authorizes the purchase to be made from the Collection Development Hegis (0020). Library Faculty may charge the Hegis fund of a related discipline under their responsibility.

Subscriptions and standing orders

  • Library Faculty and other selectors are encouraged to identify new products that meet the campus’ curricular needs, but because of the recurring budget implications of database, serial subscriptions, and standing orders, new subscriptions are generally initiated only when subscriptions of equivalent value are canceled in exchange for the new title, when additional permanent “s” funds are made available, or to meet exceptional curricular or faculty research needs. The Collection Development Officer must approve new subscriptions.
  • Database and serial/journal subscriptions are normally charged to the “s” serials Hegis fund for the discipline involved or to 0016d, for multidisciplinary databases. Individual journal subscriptions are charged to the “s” serials Hegis fund for the discipline involved.
  • Standing orders are discouraged because, by definition, they tend to be renewed without evaluation of usage and relevance to the curriculum, and often have irregular publication, making it difficult to budget for them. However, it might be appropriate for some critical reference and other frequently used materials. For example, the Writer’s Market, or the Supreme Court Yearbook are titles that are appropriate for a standing order. Standing orders should not be initiated without discussion with Collection Development Officer. Standing orders should be reviewed at least every two years. 
  • While there is an overall serials budget based on past expenditures, plus inflation where possible, Library Faculty and other selectors do not have an allocation per se. Most serials expenditures are in the form of database subscriptions or journal packages, with fewer individual journal subscriptions over time. For more see CDMC manual, Procedures, review.

Patron/Demand-driven Acquisitions and Approval Plans

  • There are staffing, budget and accounting implications to patron- and demand-driven acquisitions and approval plans. Generally, they require a commitment of a set amount of funding, but those funds must be expended in the same fiscal year. These plans need to be approved by the Collection Development Officer.

Purchase recommendations generally come in two ways: Via the electronic suggestion form on the website, or directly to selectors and/or Library Faculty.

  • Electronic form suggestions are forwarded from Library Administration to the Collection Development Officer (CDO), who consults with appropriate Library Faculty or other selectors. The CDO may occasionally discard those that are clearly sales pitches and reply without consulting selector.

  • Recommendations from departmental faculty and students often go directly to the relevant Library Faculty member who evaluates them along with other collection development criteria.

  • The Dean’s policy is that suggestions from students and faculty should be purchased unless there is a compelling reason not to (e.g. exceptionally tight budgets). If the selector has insufficient funds in their Hegis funds, the selector Library Faculty member should consult CDO, who might charge purchase to 0020.

Review of Subscriptions, Standing Orders, Patron/Demand-driven & Approval Plans 

  • Regular review of subscriptions, standing orders, patron/demand-driven plans, and approval plans is required to assure that there is sufficient usage relative to cost and that materials remain relevant, especially because inflation funding is not automatically built in to the budget.  
  • The Collection Development Officer and Collection Development & Management Committee take the lead in this review process and provide needed usage statistics and other necessary information.
  • Subscriptions, patron/demand-driven acquisitions, approval plans and standing orders should be reviewed every two years, and annually in tight budget times. See Collection Development Calendar [X Drive > Library Faculty Committees > CDMC > Collection Development Calendar] for deadlines; and Appendix C [CDMC manaul, Appencies, Serials and Databases Review Procedures for guidelines, criteria, and procedures].

The  Library Management System and Electronic Resources Coordinator and the Lib WebGroup, in consultation with Library Faculty, are responsible for making electronic resources available by adding and deleting database and other subscription data in the catalog, in the electronic resource manager and acquisitions software, etc., in LipApps, and by notifying other responsible individuals or bodies.

It is the responsibility of Library Faculty to promote subscriptions to their students and departmental faculty and to create links to them in Research Guides, as appropriate.

When asked, refer the public to the Gifts to the University Library policy

Gifts of Materials

Faculty, staff, students, and others frequently approach the Library with proposed donations of materials. These proposed donations may come to the Dean, Library Administration, to Library Faculty, to Special Collections, to the Collection Development Officer (CDO), to Access Services, or to Receiving. The Gift Policy lays out the policies and procedures for gifts of materials. In brief, here are the procedures:

  • The person talking with the potential donor asks the donor to provide a list of titles and years of publication for books, volumes/issues for serials, or information that allows the appropriate Library Faculty member to evaluate the proposed donation.

  • Library Faculty/selectors review the list of materials to decide what they want to add to the collection.  We do not accept most print periodicals, unless they fill gaps in the existing print collection, or are at least a complete two-year run.

  • Because most donation proposals come through the CDO, it is usually the CDO who communicates with potential donors, but it is not necessary. The CDO, the appropriate Library Faculty/selector(s) and/or the Library’s development director will confer in the case of large or unique gifts.

  • Generally, the CDO/Library Faculty/Selector emails the potential donor with the titles we would like to add to our collection, asking the donor to print out a copy of the email and to include it, along with the donor’s name and address, when they bring in the donation. 

  • Occasionally, after consultation with the CDO, the library will pick up donations from faculty offices or make other arrangements to acquire the donated materials.

  • Staff in Receiving log the donation, and Library Administration prepares acknowledgement letters for the CDO’s signature. The letter gives a count and brief description of what has been accepted, but no monetary value. Gifts receiving acknowledgement letters must be kept in the collection for at least two years to meet IRS regulations.

  • Donated materials are noted as gifts in the acquisition record.

In general the Library cannot use and will not accept:

  • Damaged or infested materials
  • Most textbooks
  • Most mass market paperbacks (Exceptions: Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror, or Mystery/Detective).
  • Outdated editions
  • Superseded legal, medical, and other professional books
  • Specialized collections on subjects not taught at CSULB
  • Most foreign language publications that are not in languages not included in the curriculum
  • Most periodicals (magazines, professional journals) (Exceptions: Issues which fill gaps in our collection of print journals; to determine gaps, please the online catalog holdings
  • Media in obsolete or obsolescent formats

Gifts of Money

There are several options for those wishing to contribute funds to help the Library. They are outlined in the Gift Policy on the Library web site. 

  • If a Library Faculty member is contacted regarding a potential gift of funds he/she should confer with the CDO who will work with the Library administration and staff to handle any details or conditions of the gift or proposed gift.  Small donations can be made through the University web site
  • When funds have been donated through the development office for the purchase of Library materials on a particular subject, the CDO will consult with the appropriate Library Faculty/selector(s). For substantial gifts of funds, see below, Endowed Collections.
  • Funds can be donated in honor of an individual or an organization. Make a donation to purchase a book or media in honor or in memory. Such items can bear a bookplate naming the honoree.

Endowed Collections

  • Endowed Collections are comprised of materials acquired through the support of substantial endowments provided for their support by individuals, families, and organizations. 
  • Substantial gifts of money (over $5K) are recognized on the Library's Donor Wall in the main lobby.
  • They may be either separately housed or integrated into the General Collection as appropriate.  
  • Items in these collections may carry an endowment bookplate, and they may be recognized in the Library’s online catalog with a local subject heading, e.g., Gift of the Arnold T. Schwab Endowment Fund. 
  • The Director of Development has overall responsibility for the expenditure of endowment  funds in concert with the CDO and the relevant subject Library Faculty member or other selector.
  • A list of named collections appears on the Library website.


Notification of New Items or Missing Items

New Titles List

On a regular basis, the Library Management System and Electronic Resources Coordinator posts lists of newly received titles on the Library’s website.

Missing Items

Reviewing and processing items that are lost/missing involves several departments and processes. These processes initially were developed a couple years ago, then revised to reflect new processes/terminology for ALMA. Most of these steps do not involve librarians. 

  • Missing items are generally identified in one of five ways:
  1. Library patron reports - not on shelf.
  2. ILS or CSU+ or LINK+ reports – not on shelf.
  3. Library staff reports – not on shelf.
  4. Item is missing during inventory.
  5. Item was checked out, but not returned, and patron is charged a replacement fine.
  • Library staff will change the item status to “Missing” if one of the first 4 options above occur.
  • Circulation staff will review the bursar file to determine which items have been paid for. They will then do the following:
    • Disassociate the loan from the patron’s account
    • Change the item status to Missing.
    • Add a note in Internal Note 3 as follows: Lostpaid June 2017 – (ID # of patron).
    • Add a Fulfillment note indicating that the item should be routed to Mark in case it’s returned by the patron.
  • At the beginning of every other month, Circulation staff will export to Excel and print the list of items in the “Newly Missing Items” set in Alma. 
    • After exporting the list, run a “Change Physical Items” job on the set to add a note to the “Internal Note 3 “ field using the following format: ex: Missing June 2017
    • After the job runs, create a new logical physical items set to keep track of the list. Search for “Missing June 2017” in the Internal Note 3 field. Title the new set using the same format as the internal note.
  • Reserve staff will review the list and any titles that are faculty owned or on active reserve will automatically be replaced by Technical Services as soon as we know they are not on the shelf (before searching process), unless there is a compelling reason not to.  These purchases will be charged to the Hegis 0012d.
  • Two searches will be performed before replacement decisions are made. (These searches do not include Reserve items or LostPaid items.) 
    • Circulation staff will perform the 1st search for the missing item
      • Found items: Pull item from shelf and check in to Alma to remove “missing” status and change back to “Item in Place”
      • Prepare list for 2nd Search: Using the set that was created earlier (Missing June 2017), re-export to Excel and print a new list of the remaining missing items. Give list to shelving for 2nd Search.
    • Shelving will perform the 2nd search
      • Found items: Pull item from shelf and check in to Alma to remove “missing” status and change back to “Item in Place”
      • Let circulation staff know that the 2nd search has been completed. 
  • Review for Replacement (Semi-Annually).
    • Circulation staff (or LMS Coordinator) will use Alma Analytics to create a list of the remaining missing/lostpaid items (sort by location, then call #) twice a year (June and December). Data included in the list is location, call# with volume, barcode, Title, ISBN, Last Loan Date, Total Loans (Not in House), Total Loans (In House + Not in House), Inventory Date.
    • List will be posted in Call Number order on the X/shared drive in the LostReview folder. The Collection Development Officer will be advised, who will send an email to lib-faculty with a 30-day deadline date for review and what they should do about paying for replacements if fund is low.
    • Library Faculty will review the list and note which titles and what edition should be replaced and which should be withdrawn, and should prioritize replacements overall (for all their Hegis funds) in case there are insufficient funds to replace all. Questions should go to the Collection Development Officer.
    • Collection Development Officer will:
      • Review replacement list against budget and discuss with ASM/Dean as needed.
      • Advise Technical Services of titles to be replaced. Remaining items will be kept on list in case additional funds become available.  
  • If replaced:
    • Add the phrase Reviewed and Replaced to the end of the existing note in the Internal Note 3 field.  
      • Alternatively, create an itemized set in Alma (via Excel file upload) and run a job to add a note in batch – use the Statistical Note 3 field and format the note as follows: Missing – Reviewed and Replaced – June 2018.)
    • Create a new POL for the replacement order. Add a Receiving Note to the new POL to let staff know that the missing item record will need to be withdrawn when the new item is received.
    • A new item record is automatically created by Alma at the time of ordering. Add a note in the Internal Note 1 or 2 field of the new item record, if desired, to indicate that it’s a replacement. DO NOT put the full barcode of the old item in the note.
    • Once the new item is received, follow the ULMS withdrawal procedures to withdraw the record for the “missing” item (and delete the bib record/OCLC holdings if applicable – i.e a newer edition is being purchased).
    • If the item record that is being withdrawn has a recent POL associated with it, add a note to the POL, if necessary, before the item is withdrawn to indicate that the item was lost and has been replaced.

***Exception to above for LOST/PAID items.

  • DO NOT withdraw Lost/paid item records
  • Add the phrase Reviewed and Replaced to the end of the existing note in the Internal Note 3 field.
    • Alternatively, create an itemized set in Alma (via Excel upload) to keep track of when these items should be withdrawn. Name it something like Lostpaid – Reviewed and Replaced – Withdraw June 2019 create an itemized set in Alma (via Excel upload) and run a job to add a note in batch–use the Statistical Note 3 field and format the note: Lostpaid–Reviewed and Replaced–June 2018.)
    • We will keep these for 1 year in case the patron returns.  Once it’s time to withdraw the items, follow the ULMS withdrawal procedures.
  • If not replaced:
    • Follow the ULMS withdrawal procedures to withdraw the “missing” item record (and delete the bib record/OCLC holdings if applicable).
    • If the item record has a recent POL associated with it, add a note to the POL, if necessary, before the item is withdrawn to indicate that the item was lost and is not being replaced.

***Exception to above for LOST/PAID items.

  • DO NOT withdraw Lost/paid item records
  • Create an itemized set in Alma (via Excel file upload) in order to keep track of when these items should be withdrawn. Name it something like Lostpaid–Reviewed and Not Replaced - Withdraw June 2019.
  • Run a job to add phrase “Lostpaid–Reviewed and Not Replaced” to Statistical Note 3 field.
  • We will keep these for 1 year in case the patron returns it. Once it’s time to withdraw the items, follow the ULMS withdrawal procedures.

Periodic Collection Review

Selectors should review the collections for which they are responsible on a systematic and regular basis to ensure that currently available materials in the collections are appropriate to the current and anticipated curricular needs of CSULB and the larger academic community. Review criteria may include (but are not limited to): use, relevance to curriculum, currency, type of material, physical condition, location, and external availability.

  • Use: For circulation statistics, contact the Library Management System and Electronic Resources Coordinator. For see electronic usage statistics and contact CDO. Allow at least a week for report to be generated.
  • Relevance to curriculum
  • Currency, which differs by discipline
  • Type of material: Preferences for print or electronic should be considered. Other considerations include preferences for books or media or reference materials
  • Physical condition
  • Location: Some considerations include whether materials should be moved into or out of the ORCA robotic storage system (see ORCA Appendix E) or into or out of Reference.

For a list of resources available for collection assessment, see Collection Development Tools Appendix D.


Program Reviews, Accreditation Reports & Program Proposals

  • Departments may ask Library Faculty for a written assessment of collections in a discipline for program reviews and reports for outside accrediting bodies. These reports may specify what information is needed, but typically they will want counts of books, videos, music, maps, journals in specific call number ranges or subject headings. Book, video, music, maps counts may be obtained by asking the director of Technical Services. Reports on electronic journals by subject is less precise, but the CDO can usually generate an approximate count. Other, non-collection materials may be needed as well, such as instruction and services provided by the Library and Library Faculty. There are no specific templates for these reports, but colleagues or the CDO can provide examples.
  • New program proposals require a report written by the relevant Library Faculty member assessing what Library resources might be needed to support the new program. These reports are a mandatory part of the University’s review of the resources needed to support new programs. Determining what resources are needed is a collaborative process between the Library and departmental faculty However, the ultimate responsibility for the report rests with the Library. Library resources include materials and instruction.

See New Program Proposals Appendix G for the wording in the Program Proposal template that asks for the Library report, and for a template to use in preparing the Library resource assessment.

There are two basic ways to get usage statistics on electronic resources. Below are the current ways as of September, 2016. Some of this will change in 2017 as we migrate to Alma. If neither of these methods work, ask Sharlene. Some vendors are not COUNTER compliant and you might not be able to compare those vendors’ stats with those from COUNTER-compliant vendors.


ProQuest InTota for Usage Statistics

  • Log in:
  • Password: 1250Library
  • Click on Reports at top of page
  • Choose the report you want. (Definitions of what each COUNTER report includes). If you need a JR5 report that includes the year of publication of the journal articles downloaded, you need to go to the Vendor. See below.
  • Select date range
  • Choose provider (e.g. Annual Reviews)
  • Click Apply
  • Results appear on screen, and you can Export them to Excel (button at bottom of page)


How to Retrieve Statistics from Vendor

See Counter Statistics folder, X: > COUNTER statistics, look for the spreadsheet labeled Username and Passwords for Statistics. Internal URL: X:\COUNTER statistics\Username and passwords for statistics.xlsx  (Copy and paste URL into address box and spreadsheet will download, if you are on campus.)

  • You will find the URL, user name and password
  • Log in
  • Look for something that says Usage or COUNTER to find the types of reports that the vendor keeps.
    • Choose the report you want. (Definitions of what each COUNTER report includes)
  • Usually you can download them into Excel.


How to Get BeachReach/Link+ Statistics

  • Usage reported to Copyright Clearance Center. Head of Access Services puts the annual reports to the Copyright Clearance Center in the X-files: X: > BeachReach. We pay CCC when we use more than 5 articles from a given journal title in a given year. So you can add 5 to these numbers to get the total articles requested. These stats are uploaded each January for the previous year.
  • Raw BeachReach requests. Head of Access Services adds the raw data on BeachReach requests every couple months. Some of these requests will be to titles we already have. Most of the time, we will not receive 5 requests over the year and so we won’t be paying CCC for articles from these journals.
    • The Collection Development Officer (CDO) usually evaluates this list before Head of Access Services actually pays CCC in January of the following year, in case there is a title that it makes more economic sense to get a subscription retroactively. Or the CDO reviews the list right afterward to see what subscriptions should be added.
  • Link+
    • Link+ stats are also kept in the X-files X:/BeachReach/
    • The CDO usually organizes these annually to look for books that we might purchase. Because textbooks are often the most requested and we don’t have sufficient budget for most textbooks, you have to be cautious in your use of these stats.
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