The Cambridge History of Science by Hugh Richard Slotten (Editor); Ronald L. Numbers (Editor); David N. Livingstone (Editor)This volume in the highly respected Cambridge History of Science series is devoted to exploring the history of modern science using national, transnational, and global frames of reference. Organized by topic and culture, its essays by distinguished scholars offer the most comprehensive and up-to-date nondisciplinary history of modern science currently available. Essays are grouped together in separate sections that represent larger regions: Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, East and Southeast Asia, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Oceania, and Latin America. Each of these regional groupings ends with a separate essay reflecting on the analysis in the preceding chapters. Intended to provide a balanced and inclusive treatment of the modern world, contributors analyze the history of science not only in local, national, and regional contexts but also with respect to the circulation of knowledge, tools, methods, people, and artifacts across national borders.
Publication Date: 2020-03-21
The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science by John L. Heilbron (Editor)The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science is a one-volume encyclopedia offering an excellent overview of the field of science and its development over the past few generations, ranging from biographies on Galileo and Dorothy Hodgkin to the discussions chronicling the change of science from simply a tool of learning to a major force in society. Along with chemistry, physics, and biology, the major scientific disciplines are represented in this alphabetically arranged work including astrology, ethnology, and zoology, among many others. The coverage is not limited to just one geographical area but is world-wide, tracing science from its traditional centres and explaining how non-western societies have modified and contributed to its global arena.
Publication Date: 2003-03-27
Science and Technology in World History [2 Volumes] by William E. Burns (Editor)This encyclopedia offers an interdisciplinary approach to studying science and technology within the context of world history. With balanced coverage, a logical organization, and in-depth entries, readers of all inclinations will find useful and interesting information in its contents.
Science and Technology in World History takes a truly global approach to the subjects of science and technology and spans the entirety of recorded human history. Topical articles and entries on the subjects are arranged under thematic categories, which are divided further into chronological periods. This format, along with the encyclopedia's integrative approach, offers an array of perspectives that collectively contribute to the understanding of numerous fields across the world and over eras of development.
Entries cover discussions of scientific and technological innovations and theories, historical vignettes, and important texts and individuals throughout the world. From the discovery of fire and the innovation of agricultural methods in China to the establishment of surgical practices in France and the invention of Quantum Theory, this encyclopedia offers comprehensive coverage of fascinating topics in science and technology through a straightforward, historical lens.
Provides readers with a multicultural view of the evolution of science and technology from prehistory to the present
Covers both scientific theory and practical technology
Encourages readers to think about science and technology in historical terms
Places current conditions within a broad historical framework
Publication Date: 2020-02-07
Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction by Domenico E. Bertoloni Meli; Harold Dorn; James E. McClellanNow in its second edition, this bestselling textbook may be the single most influential study of the historical relationship between science and technology ever published. Tracing this relationship from the dawn of civilization through the twentieth century, James E. McClellan III and Harold Dorn argue that technology as "applied science" emerged relatively recently, as industry and governments began funding scientific research that would lead directly to new or improved technologies. McClellan and Dorn identify two great scientific traditions: the useful sciences, patronized by the state from the dawn of civilization, and scientific theorizing, initiated by the ancient Greeks. They find that scientific traditions took root in China, India, and Central and South America, as well as in a series of Near Eastern empires, during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. From this comparative perspective, the authors explore the emergence of Europe and the United States as a scientific and technological power. The new edition reorganizes its treatment of Greek science and significantly expands its coverage of industrial civilization and contemporary science and technology with new and revised chapters devoted to applied science, the sociology and economics of science, globalization, and the technological systems that underpin everyday life.
Publication Date: 2006-06-20
Science and Technology in World History by David DemingScience is a living, organic activity, the meaning and understanding of which have evolved incrementally over human history. This volume, the first in a roughly chronological series, explores the development of the methodology and major ideas of science, in historical context, from ancient times to the decline of classical civilizations around 300 A.D. It includes details specific to the histories of specialized sciences including astronomy, medicine and physics, along with Roman engineering and Greek philosophy. It closely describes the contributions of such individuals as Pythagoras, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Euclid, Archimedes, Ptolemy, Seneca, Pliny the Elder, and Galen. The second volume explores the evolution of science from the advents of Christianity and Islam through the Middle Ages, focusing especially on the historical relationship between science and religion. Specific topics include technological innovations during the Middle Ages; Islamic science; the Crusades; Gothic cathedrals; and the founding of Western universities. Close attention is given to such figures as Paul the Apostle, Hippolytus, Lactantius, Cyril of Alexandria, Hypatia, Cosmas Indicopleustes, and the Prophet Mohammed.
Publication Date: 2010-04-20
Creations of fire: Chemistry's lively history from alchemy to the atomic age by Cathy Cobb; Harold GoldwhiteMore than any other science, the history of chemistry is intimately linked to human history. Chemical technology has fostered the development of civilizations, altered the course of wars, generated the industrial revolution, and created the petroleum and plastics that fuel and shape our modern world. In this fascinating and significant book Cathy Cobb and Harold Goldwhite, two respected scientists and writers, have teamed up to present a wonderfully rich story of chemistry - celebrating not only theories and breakthroughs, but the provocative times and personalities that shaped this amazing science and brought it to life.
The Scientific Revolution: An encyclopedia by William E. BurnsThis A-Z enclyclopedia covers people, terms, discoveries, publications, methods, and philosophies that define the Scientific Revolution. Entries discuss scientific discoveries and theories in a social and cultural context, rather than as the products of "great minds" alone.
The First Atomic Age by Matthew LavineIn this book the author discusses how the nuclear culture in the United States was created and how that culture had an effect on the atomic age of the post-war twentieth century.
Publication Date: 2013-06-10
On giants' shoulders: Great scientists and their discoveries: from Archimedes to DNA by Melvyn BraggSome of the greatest minds of science are profiled in a series of engaging portraits. On Giants' Shoulders Explore the greatest minds in the history of science with some of the top scientific thinkers of today. Archimedes Galileo Galilei Sir Isaac Newton Antoine Lavoisier Michael Faraday Charles Darwin Jules Henri Poincar Sigmund Freud Marie Curie Albert Einstein Francis Crick James Watson The story of science is the greatest adventure of the human mind over the last 2,500 years, as scientists have progressively advanced humankind's understanding and control of the universe. Yet for many, the scientific theories that underpin the modern world can be hard to grasp. On Giants' Shoulders elucidates the milestones in the history of science, focusing on twelve individuals and their extraordinary breakthroughs. From a layman's perspective, acclaimed journalist and author Melvyn Bragg discusses the life, work, and legacy of these remarkable people with leading scientists and historians in each field, including Stephen Jay Gould, Richard Dawkins, Roger Penrose, Martin Rees, Oliver Sacks, John Gribbin, and Paul Davies. Ranging from the foundation of hydrostatics in the third century B.C. to the discovery of DNA's structure in our own time, this is an accessible, thought-provoking, and fascinating account of the seminal discoveries of the past and their originators. The book also illuminates the issues with which scientists are wrestling today, poised on their forerunners' shoulders to carry scientific inquiry into the next millennium. "This is an enchanting book, because it is a book produced by a clever man listening intently ... Science is not, in truth, a daunting alien territory. But characteristically it seems to want to tell us the answers dogmatically, before we are sure what questions we would like to ask. On Giants' Shoulders asks just those kind of questions."--Lisa Jardine, The Times (London) "Nobody in the media has worked harder than Melvyn Bragg to promote science as a culture and scientists as creators. In a sea of indifference to the educational and cultural nature of science, he seems to be the only person with perception."--Professor Sir Harry Kroto The Sunday Times (London).
Publication Date: 1999-08-27
Science in 100 key breakthroughsThis book presents a series of clear and concise essays that explain the fundamentals of some of the most exciting and important science concepts you really need to know.
Eureka! Stories of scientific discovery by Leslie Alan HorvitzSince the day Archimedes leapt from his bathtub and ran naked through the streets of ancient Syracuse shouting "Eureka!" the history of science has been punctuated by moments of true insight and discovery. Eureka!: Scientific Breakthroughs that Changed the World explores the events and thought processes that led twelve great minds to their "eureka moments." It also explains the profound impact of these discoveries on the way we live, think, and view the world around us. Most of the "instant" discoveries presented here were, in fact, the combined product of determined effort and exceptional feats of vision. You'll learn how, after years of highly focused study, Dmitri Mendeleyev had a vision of the structure of the periodic table form in his mind while playing a card game of his own devising. Alfred Wegener, on the other hand, amassed data from the varied fields of meteorology, seismology, paleontology, zoology, and geology to confirm his intuitive belief in his theory of continental drift-a theory that provoked a storm of outrage from geologists and was not proven until thirty years after his death. You'll also meet "lucky" scientists such as Joseph Priestley, who admitted that he did not know what he was doing when he stumbled upon the existence of oxygen, but realized immediately that he had made a stunningly important discovery. Likewise, Alexander Fleming, who discovered penicillin by recognizing the importance of a "failed" experiment and rescuing it from the trash bin in his lab. This fascinating and engaging collection of great moments in science is filled with clear explanations, vivid descriptions, and plenty of surprises. It is must reading for anyone interested in science, science history, and the implacable human urge to explore and understand the unknown.
Publication Date: 2002-01-09
Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and Discoveries of the 18th Century by Jonathan Shectman"The 18th century saw the emergence of the industrial and chemical revolutions and witnessed the near-universal acceptance of applied science. It was a time of revolutionary, lasting transformation for the practice of science and mathematics. Most procedures and precepts of modern science took hold during the 18th century, when scientists first paired scientific research with practical application to astonishing results." "In over 60 alphabetical entries, Shectman examines the tremendous scientific discoveries, inventions, and inquiries of the period. Familiar topics such as the steam engine and hot air balloon are covered, along with lesser-known topics such as the Watt copy press and Newton's experimentum cruces. A thorough discussion of each entry's scientific impact provides readers with an understanding of the lasting social and political importance of these advancements. Narratives enrich the entries by adding context and perspective to the century's fascinating scientific history. Students and researchers will find this reference book easy to use.
Publication Date: 2003-09-30
The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the struggle over evolutionary thought by Robert J. RichardsPrior to the First World War, more people learned of evolutionary theory from the voluminous writings of Charles Darwin's foremost champion in Germany, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919), than from any other source, including the writings of Darwin himself. But, with detractors ranging from paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould to modern-day creationists and advocates of intelligent design, Haeckel is better known as a divisive figure than as a pioneering biologist. Robert J. Richards's intellectual biography rehabilitates Haeckel, providing the most accurate measure of his science and art yet written, as well as a moving account of Haeckel's eventful life.
Publication Date: 2008-01-01
Einstein's Luck: The truth behind some of the greatest scientific discoveries by John WallerThe pasteurization of spontaneous generation -- 'The battle over the electron' -- The eclipse of Isaac Newton : Arthur Eddington's 'proof' of general relativity -- Very unscientific management -- The Hawthorne studies : finding what you are looking for -- Conclusion to part 1 : Sins against science? -- Myth in the time of cholera -- 'The priest who held the key' : Gregor Mendel and the ratios of fact and fiction -- Was Joseph Lister Mr. Clean? -- The origin of species by means of use-inheritance -- 'A is for ape, B is for Bible' : science, religion, and melodrama -- Painting yourself into a comer : Charles Best and the discovery of insulin -- Alexander Fleming's dirty dishes -- 'A decoy of Satan' -- Conclusion to part 2 : Sins against history?
Argues that many of our greatest scientists were less than honest about their experimental data, providing a catalog of myths debunked and icons shattered.
Publication Date: 2003-05-08
Transformations of Lamarckism by Snait B. Gissis (Editor, Contribution by); Eva Jablonka (Editor, Contribution by); Anna Zeligowski (Illustrator), et al.A reappraisal of Lamarckism--its historical impact and contemporary significance.
In 1809--the year of Charles Darwin's birth--Jean-Baptiste Lamarck published Philosophie zoologique, the first comprehensive and systematic theory of biological evolution. The Lamarckian approach emphasizes the generation of developmental variations; Darwinism stresses selection. Lamarck's ideas were eventually eclipsed by Darwinian concepts, especially after the emergence of the Modern Synthesis in the twentieth century. The different approaches--which can be seen as complementary rather than mutually exclusive--have important implications for the kinds of questions biologists ask and for the type of research they conduct. Lamarckism has been evolving--or, in Lamarckian terminology, transforming--since Philosophie zoologique's description of biological processes mediated by "subtle fluids." Essays in this book focus on new developments in biology that make Lamarck's ideas relevant not only to modern empirical and theoretical research but also to problems in the philosophy of biology. Contributors discuss the historical transformations of Lamarckism from the 1820s to the 1940s, and the different understandings of Lamarck and Lamarckism; the Modern Synthesis and its emphasis on Mendelian genetics; theoretical and experimental research on such "Lamarckian" topics as plasticity, soft (epigenetic) inheritance, and individuality; and the importance of a developmental approach to evolution in the philosophy of biology. The book shows the advantages of a "Lamarckian" perspective on evolution. Indeed, the development-oriented approach it presents is becoming central to current evolutionary studies--as can be seen in the burgeoning field of Evo-Devo. Transformations of Lamarckism makes a unique contribution to this research.
Publication Date: 2011-04-22
Darwin's Plots by Gillian BeerFocus on how writers, including George Eliot, Charles Kingsley and Thomas Hardy, responded to Darwin's discoveries and to his innovations in scientific language that continues to open up new approaches to Darwin's thought and to its effects in the culture of his contemporaries.
Publication Date: 1985-01-01
Scientific laws, principles and theories: A reference guide by Robert E. KrebsThe development of universal scientific laws, physical principles, viable theories, and testable hypotheses has a long history, one which has included many errors and many exciting breakthroughs. Students can explore that fascinating history from ancient times to the present in this unique reference collection of laws, theories, and principles related to the physical and biological scientific fields. Each entry clearly defines a concept in easy-to-understand language. Discussions of the history and development behind the concepts in each entry provide students with a broad understanding of the exploratory nature of science, how conclusions are drawn, and how the study of science affects our lives.
Merchants of Doubt by Erik M. Conway; Naomi OreskesThis book has been praised- and attacked- around the world, for reasons easy to understand. This book tells, with 'brutal clarity', the disquieting story of how a loose-knit group of high-level scientists and scientific advisers, with deep connections in politics and industry, ran effective campaigns to mislead the public and deny well-established scientific knowledge over four decades that link smoking to lung cancer, coal smoke to acid rain, and CFCs to the ozone hole. It is the troubling story of how a cadre of influential scientists have clouded public understanding of scientific facts to advance a political and economic agenda. The U.S. scientific community has long led the world in research on such areas as public health, environmental science, and issues affecting quality of life. Our scientists have produced landmark studies on the dangers of DDT, tobacco smoke, acid rain, and global warming.
Publication Date: 2010-05-25
Controlling Human Heredity by Diane B. PaulIn the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century, it was widely assumed that society ought to foster the breeding of those who possessed favorable traits and discourage the breeding of those who did not. Controlled human breeding, "eugenics" as it was labeled by Francis Galton, seemed only good common sense. How did eugenics come to exert such powerful and broad appeal? What events shaped its direction? Whose interests did it finally serve? Why did it fall into disrepute? Has it survived in other guises? These are some of the questions that Diane Paul sets out to answer - questions that have acquired a new urgency in light of developments in genetic medicine. The eugenics movement appeared to be dead - associated with race and class prejudice, in particular the crimes of the Third Reich - or was it just sleeping? Has eugenics returned in the guise of medical genetics? In Controlling Human Heredity, Professor Paul aims to bridge the gap between expert and lay understandings of the history of eugenics and thereby enrich the debate on the perplexing contemporary choices in genetic medicine.
Publication Date: 1995-11-01
Economy and Nature in the Fourteenth Century by Joel KayeThis book provides new perspectives on the ways in which scholastic natural philosophy anticipated and contributed to the emergence of scientific thought. Historians of medieval science have hesitated to step outside the sphere of intellectual culture in their search for factors influencing proto-scientific thought. This book searches for influences both within and beyond university culture, and argues that the transformation of the conceptual model of the natural world c.1260-1380 was strongly influenced by the contemporary rapid monetisation of European society. It analyses the impact of the monetised market place on the most characteristic concern of natural philosophy of the period: its preoccupation with measurement, gradation, and the quantification of qualities. Winner of the John Nicholas Brown Prize.--
A brilliant study of proto-scientific thought, arguing that the transformation of the conceptual model of the natural world c.1260-1380 was strongly influenced by rapid monetisation in European society.
Science and the Enlightenment by Thomas L. HankinsScience and the Enlightenment is a general history of eighteenth-century science covering both the physical and life sciences. It places the scientific developments of the century in the cultural context of the Enlightenment and reveals the extent to which scientific ideas permeated the thought of the age. The book takes advantage of recent scholarship, which is rapidly changing our understanding of science was organized into fields that were quite different from those we know today. Professor Hankins's work is a much needed addition to the literature on eighteenth-century science. His study is not technical; it will be of interest to all students of the Enlightenment and the history of science, as well as to the general reader with some background in science. -- from back cover.
Science and the Enlightenment is a general history of eighteenth-century science covering both the physical and life sciences. It places the scientific developments of the century in the cultural context of the Enlightenment and reveals the extent to which scientific ideas permeated the thought of the age. The book takes advantage of topical scholarship, which is rapidly changing our understanding of science during the eighteenth century. In particular it describes how science was organized into fields that were quite different from those we know today.
Publication Date: 1985-04-26
Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues by Joseph P. Byrne (Editor)From the Athenian flu pandemic to the Black Death to AIDS, this extensive two-volume set offers a sociocultural, historical, and medical look at infectious diseases and their place in human history from Neolithic times to the present. Nearly 300 entries cover individual diseases (such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, Ebola, and SARS); major epidemics (such as the Black Death, 16th-century syphilis, cholera in the nineteenth century, and the Spanish Flu of 1918-19); environmental factors (such as ecology, travel, poverty, wealth, slavery, and war); and historical and cultural effects of disease
Publication Date: 2008-09-30
The Duke and the Stars by Monica AzzoliniThe Duke and the Stars explores science and medicine as studied and practiced in fifteenth-century Italy, including how astrology was taught in relation to astronomy. It illustrates how the 'predictive art' of astrology was often a critical, secretive source of information for Italian Renaissance rulers, particularly in times of crisis. This study is the first to examine the important political role played by astrology in Italian court culture. Reconstructing the powerful dynamics existing between astrologers and their prospective or existing patrons, The Duke and the Stars illustrates how the "predictive art" of astrology was a critical source of information for Italian Renaissance rulers, particularly in times of crisis. Astrological "intelligence" was often treated as sensitive, and astrologers and astrologer-physicians were often trusted with intimate secrets and delicate tasks that required profound knowledge not only of astrology but also of the political and personal situation of their clients. Two types of astrological predictions, medical and political, were taken into the most serious consideration. Focusing on Milan, Monica Azzolini describes the various ways in which the Sforza dukes (and Italian rulers more broadly) used astrology as a political and dynastic tool, guiding them as they contracted alliances, made political decisions, waged war, planned weddings, and navigated health crises. The Duke and the Stars explores science and medicine as studied and practiced in fifteenth-century Italy, including how astrology was taught in relation to astronomy.
Publication Date: 2013-01-14
Science in Wonderland by Melanie KeenePresents a new perspective on Victorian scientific discoveries and inventions; includes a range of Victorian scientific fairy-tales and stories; looks at why fairies and their tales were chosen as an appropriate new form for capturing and presenting scientific and technological knowledge to young audiences; examines a range of scientific subjects, from palaeontology to entomology to astronomy.--Provided by publisher.
In Victorian Britain an array of writers captured the excitement of new scientific discoveries, and enticed young readers and listeners into learning their secrets, by converting introductory explanations into quirky, charming, and imaginative fairy-tales; forces could be fairies, dinosaurs could be dragons, and looking closely at a drop of water revealed a soup of monsters. Science in Wonderland explores how these stories were presented and read. Melanie Keene introduces and analyses a range of Victorian scientific fairy-tales, from nursery classics such as The Water-Babies to the little-known.