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Style Manuals and Citation Methods: More on Citing

What are footnotes?

What are footnotes? What are endnotes?

  • Footnotes are a method of including a superscript number at the end of the quote or paraphrase to guide the reader to the source material. The number refers to a citation at the bottom of the page. Check a style manual such as MLA or Turabian for more information.
  • Endnotes use the same method but instead of including the citation at the bottom of the page they are on a separate page at the end of the paper.

More information:
How do Write Footnotes and Endnotes in MLA Style
Turabian Bibliographic Form: Footnote/Endnote Style from Georgetown University

What are in-text citations?

In-text or parenthetical citations generally include a signal phrase (usually the author's name) to alert the author you are using someone's ideas and a reference (usually the page number). 


Rose (1994) noted, rap music has both overt and covert political dimensions: "Rap's poetic voice is deeply political in context and spirit, but its hidden struggle--that of access to public space and community resources and the interpretations of Black expression--constitutes rap's hidden politics" (p. 145).

In the past twenty years, hip-hop culture and especially its most popular form of expression, rap music, have spread "from the margins to mainstream" (Stapleton 219). 

More information:
MLA In-text citations
APA In-text citations

What is a bibliography?

A bibliography or works cited page is a list of references or citations used to write a paper or project. It is a list at the end of a paper and gives the reader the basic information they would need to find those items such as the book title, author, journal title, articles title, year, etc..

Sample Bibliographies:
Sample Bibliography or Works Cited in MLA Style
MLA Sample Works Cited Page from OWL at Purdue
Reference List: Basic Rules-APA from OWL at Purdue
Sample Bibliography: Chicago Style

What is an annotated bibliography?
An annotated bibliography has two parts 1) a list of works with the citation information and, 2) a descriptive or evaluative paragraph about each work.

Out-of-the-Ordinary Sources of Information

How do I cite things like interviews, emails, etc.?
When you are using non-standard sources of information it can be more difficult to cite these sources. The official style manual will be the best resource for a complete description of how to cite. Here are a few web sites with information:

Tip: Use a search engine, like Google, and search for "APA citation ERIC document" or "MLA citation interview" to find more examples.

Where can I get help with citing?