When you paraphrase or include quotations in your paper, cite the original work using either the narrative or parenthetical citation format depending on your preference and how smoothly the citation can be integrated into the text. The in-text citation guidelines are different for paraphrases versus quotations.
1. Narrative citation
2. Parenthetical citation
Note: It is not required to provide a page or paragraph number in the citation when you are paraphrasing.
If you have a long paraphrase, cite the work being paraphrased on first mention. Once the work has been cited, it is not necessary to repeat the citation if the same work continues to be paraphrased:
Note:If the paraphrase continues into a new paragraph, reintroduce the citation.
When paraphrasing multiple sources in one sentence, include in-text citations for each source. The citations should be placed in parentheses, separated by a semicolon, and ordered alphabetically by the authors' last names:
Suppose you want to include paraphrased information from two sources, one by John Smith published in 2021 and another by Jane Brown published in 2020. The in-text citation would be formatted as follows:
In this example, the ideas from both sources are combined into a single sentence, and the in-text citations for each source are included in parentheses, separated by a semicolon. Note that the sources are listed alphabetically by the authors' last names.
Here is a more complex example of paraphrasing multiple sources in one sentence:
In this example, the in-text citation includes multiple sources to support distinct aspects of the statement. The parenthetical citations are placed next to the specific aspect of the sentence they support, separated by semicolons.
When you include a direct quote from a source, you should also provide the page number where the quote can be found.
Some sources like webpages and eBooks might not have page numbers. In these cases, use a page number alternative that will easily tell the reader where the quote is located. Here are examples of page number alternatives:
Here is an example for citing a quote in-text that is found in an article section titled "Methodology":
Here is an example for a citing a quote in-text that is found in an article section titled "Exercise and Mental Health in Teenagers":
You will come across sources that have multiple authors, especially when you're using scholarly sources. Luckily, if there are three or more authors the in-text citation only includes the first author.
When paraphrasing a source with two authors:
When paraphrasing a source with three or more authors:
|Author Type||Parenthetical Citation||Narrative Citation|
|One author||(Smith, 2021)||Smith (2021)|
|Two authors||(Smith & Jones, 2021)||Smith and Jones (2021)|
|Three or more authors||(Smith et al., 2021)||Smith et al. (2021)|
In-text citations for direct quotes from sources with multiple authors require that you include the page number(s). For the page number(s), use "p." (for a single page) or "pp." (for multiple pages) before the page number.
When a source has a group author (such as an organization, government agency, or corporation) instead of individual authors, use the name of the group author as you would an individual author's name. For example:
You are not obligated to abbreviate the name of a group author, but you can if the abbreviation is well-known, will help avoid cumbersome repetition, or will appear at least three times in the paper.
Then, use the abbreviation in all later citations. For example:
For a missing author, do not use “Anonymous” as the author unless the work is actually signed “Anonymous.” For example, articles from The Economist are usually signed "Anonymous." If the work is signed “Anonymous,” use “Anonymous” in the reference and in-text citation.
When a source has no publication date, you can still create in-text citations by using the abbreviation "n.d." (which stands for "no date") in place of the publication year. Here's how to format in-text citations for sources with no publication date:
In-text citations: In-text citations appear within the body of the paper and briefly identify the cited work by its author and date of publication.
Narrative citations: In narrative citations, the publication date appears in parentheses immediately after the author’s last name when it is mentioned in a sentence.
Parenthetical citations: In parenthetical citations, the author's name and publication date appear in parentheses together, usually at the end of a sentence.
Paraphrase: To paraphrase is to state something written or spoken in different words, especially in a shorter and simpler form to make the meaning clearer